Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. Basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag is a by-product from the further refining of liquid iron to produce steel by removal of non-essential elements through oxidation and in combination with lime flux. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. This rapid cooling, often from a temperature of around 2,600 °F (1,430 °C), is the start of the granulating process. Steel slag is a byproduct from either the conversion of iron to steel in a basic oxygen furnace, or the melting of scrap to make steel in an electric arc furnace. Steel slag aggregates can be acidic or basic and can leach hazardous elements (Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016). Physical Description SFS produced in the BOS is dark gray in color and characteristically harder than blast furnace slag (BFS) with a density approximately 20 - 25% greater than basalt or BFS. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. The former comprises of the integral It was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and melted down to make glassware products and jewelry. [1] examined the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag in concrete. Physical properties of steel slag are given in Table 3. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. (4) Proper processing of steel slag and special quality-control procedures are extremely important in selecting steel slag for use in asphalt paving mixes. The electric arc furnace slag aggregates showed tendency to expand, which is related to the presence of certain volumetrically unstable periclase and free line (Evangelista and de Brito, 2010). The specific gravity result of cement The smelting of copper, lead and bauxite in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them as iron-silicate-based slags. INTRODUCTION. 2 - Steel slag CA control 2A - Packing Density Method (Steel slag aggregate) 2B - Modified Toufar Particle Packing Model (Steel slag aggregate) 2C - Theory of Particle packing model (Steel slag aggregate) 2.1.1 Cement The cement used in this study of steel slag concrete was OPC Grade 43. U.S. ferrous slag production, but domestic slag sales1 in 2019 were estimated to be 17 million tons valued at about $470 million. At the same time the abrasion resistance tends to be enhanced (Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006). During the Bronze Age of the Mediterranean there were a vast number of differential metallurgical processes in use. Ferrous slag is currently underutilized. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF) steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF) steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. the thermochemical properties and the thermophysical properties. Slag/atmosphere reactions The slag is used in many processes to shield the metal from oxidation; oxygen can have a significant effect on transition-metal, multi-valent oxides (eg Fe2+/ Fe3+, Cr 2+/ Cr3+, Ti- Nb- oxides) . density of slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³. The physical characteristics such as density, porosity, and particle size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition. [4] The slag can also be used to create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool. The liquid slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag. As the slag is channeled out of the furnace, water is poured over it. Anifowose et al. Its bulk density is in the … JSPL has set … STUDY ON CEMENTITIOUS PROPERTIES OF STEEL SLAG G. Zhua , Y. Haoa , C. Xiaa , Y. Zhanga , T. Hua , S. Suna,* a Central Research Institute of Building and Construction, Beijing, China (Received 10 August 2012; accepted 2 February 2013) Abstract The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high iron (Fe) content. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.2 grams per cubic centimeters (g/cc) to 3.6 g/cc. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature controlof the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace an… Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. [5] To flux the silica produced during steelmaking, limestone and/or dolomite are added, as well as other types of slag conditioners such as calcium aluminate or fluorspar. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel. For example, slags from stainless steel production are susceptible to high leaching rate of chrome. The aim of this experiment is to study the effect of partial replacement of steel slag on various strength and durability properties of concrete by using mix design. The test is carried out at the replacement level of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% at the ages of 7 and • Steel slag cannot be used in confined applications such as in concrete, pipe or structure backfill due to the potential for expansion. Due to the high density of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregate has a higher density than plain cement concrete does . In BF slag, FeO is around 0.70%, whereas in case of steel slag, total iron content varies from 16 to 25%. Aggregate with Steel Slag at different Properties”. When the filtering process is complete, the remaining slag granules, which now give the appearance of coarse beach sand, can be scooped out of the filter bed and transferred to the grinding facility where they are ground into particles that are finer than Portland cement. Blast furnace slag was about 50% of the tonnage sold and accounted for 88% of the total value of slag, most of which was granulated. Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. Because of the slowly released phosphate content in phosphorus-containing slag, and because of its liming effect, it is valued as fertilizer in gardens and farms in steel making areas. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. The density of steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum. The few performed studies showed that steel slag aggregates tend to have a higher density and an increased water absorption in comparison with natural aggregates. Andrzej Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. Physical properties of steel slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Slag, solid weighs 2.114 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 114 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. Some of the earliest such uses for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt. The steel slag is used as a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road construction (Sheen et al., 2013; Manso et al., 2004). Slag/metal reactions involve ions (Equn 1) and involve charge exchange resulting in the changes shown in Figure 1. [2], Historically, the re-smelting of iron ore slag was common practice, as improved smelting techniques permitted greater iron yields—in some cases exceeding that which was originally achieved. The filter beds then retain the slag granules, while the water drains away and is returned to the system. Since the unit volume of Portland cement is reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack. The actual properties of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of crushed limestone total. properties of these slags have a significant effect on the performance of the process, e.g. In some smelting processes, such as ilmenite smelting to produce titanium dioxide, the slag is the valuable product instead of the metal.[1]. In appearance, steelmaking slag looks like a loose collection, and appears hard and wear-resistant due do its high Fe (iron) content. The mineral composition of blast furnace slag generally consists of melilite (Ca 2 MgSi 2 O 7 - Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7) and merwinite (Ca 3 MgSi 2 O 8).Steelmaking slag (BOS or EAF) mainly consist of dicalciumsilicate (Ca 2 SiO 4), dicalciumferrite (Ca 2 Fe 2 O 5) and wuestite (Fe 1 -x- y,Mg x,Mn y)O z.. Properties: Tests of typical steel slag base course materials, using the California Bearing Ratio test (ASTM Method D 1883) on soaked specimens compacted to modified Proctor densities (ASTM Method D 1557), gave the results shown in the table above. Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. The bulk density of the steelmaking slag is in the range of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum. The slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz. Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. between BF slag and steel slag. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. [citation needed]. Selected physical properties of steel slag are shown in Table 10.1. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. As the slag has a lower density than steel, it floats on top of the molten bath of steel. the selection of viscosity and solidification temperature are key to minimizing defects in the continuous casting of steel1, and the electrical conductivity of the slag determines the power supply requirements of many electric smelting processes2. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 131.9727 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.222 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³] . In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. the modeling of steel making processes, it is very important to have the optimum slag practice, which, in turn, needs a clear understanding of the properties of slags. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. Ground granulated slag reacts with a calcium byproduct created during the reaction of Portland cement to produce cementitious properties. 2SiO2, and some other oxides exist in steel slag (Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and better durability. JSW Steel has set up a unique BOF slag granulation plant, producing slag with lower free lime content and is vigorously pursuing with BIS. It was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is close to that of Portland cement clinker. In addition, concrete containing steel slag aggregate displays satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths [ 28 – 30 ]. The slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten iron and recycled steel in the presence of fluxes and oxygen. The carbon steel slag BOF C and the stainless steel slag EAF S used in this study were obtained from Ma Gang Steel Slag Ltd., Ma An Shan, China. The slag has a lower density than steel and therefore floats on top of the molten steel. The major components of these slags therefore include the oxides of calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of manganese, phosphorus, and others depending on the specifics of the raw materials used. With high particle density and hardness, this slag has superior wear resistance and for this reason is used as an aggregate for asphalt concrete. Steel Slag - Asphalt Concrete INTRODUCTION Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Depending on the used production technology, the steel slag can be divided into a basic oxygen steel slag, an electric arc furnace slag and a ladle furnace slag (De Brito and Saika, 2013). The water carries the slag in its slurry format to a large agitation tank, from where it is pumped along a piping system into a number of gravel based filter beds. Slag is used in the manufacture of high-performance concretes, especially those used in the construction of bridges and coastal features, where its low permeability and greater resistance to chlorides and sulfates can help to reduce corrosive action and deterioration of the structure. Doing so would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers’ current waste footprint. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 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Samitinjay S. Bansode, in, Characteristics and Uses of Steel Slag in Building Construction, Self-Sensing Concrete in Smart Structures, Usability criteria for slag use in rigid matrices, Carbon dioxide sequestration using steel slag—modeling and experimental investigation, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, Usability criteria for slag use as a granular material, Sersale, Amicarelli, Frigione et al., 1986; Shi, 2004, Properties of SCC with industrial by-products as aggregates, Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, Slow cooling (air cooled), crushing, sieving, Rapid cooling (water cooled), gridding (<100 μm), Crystalline, strength, high skid resistance, Slow cooling, moistened, crushing, sieving, Crystalline, strength, dense, high skid resistance. The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. However, the most important application is construction. Table ( 3 ): Typical physical properties of steel slag. Table 10.1. This process causes several chemical reactions to take place within the slag, and gives the material its cementitious properties. [6], Glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated from its raw ore, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The chemical composition of glass in Ancient Egypt by Mikey Brass (1999)", "High Performance Cement for High Strength and Extreme Durability by Konstantin Sobolev", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slag&oldid=998135873, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 00:17. Steel slag produced from basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces accounted for the Depending on the intended steel quality (carbon steel or stainless/high alloy … Properties and Uses of Iron and Steel Slag MF 182-6 NATIONAL SLAG ASSOCIATION www.nationalslagassoc.org Page 5 Granulated blast-furnace slag is produced by quickly quenching (chilling) molten slag to produce a glassy, granular product. From this and the added fluxing agents molten slag and iron are formed. Table2: Some properties of iron and steel slag aggregates compared to natural rocks [11]: Property Blast furnace slag Steel slag Basalt Greywacke bulk density (g/cm3) 2,4 3,6 3,0 2,7 compressive strength (N/mm2) 100 200 300 200 impact value (%) 27 17 17 20 resistance to polishing (PSV) 50 57 50 56 Steel slag can be processed into a coarse or fine aggregate material for use in dense- and open-graded hot mix asphalt concrete pavements, (1,2,3) and in cold mix or surface treatment applications. Because of the high thickness of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does. Both BOF C and EAF S weathered naturally under a laboratory conditions for a specific period of time to achieve satisfying volume … In nature, iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states called ores, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. • Blast furnace slag may be used in concrete. Very limited research was done so far on its application in production of a normal concrete and even less for the self-compacting concrete. This paper reviews the production, processing, and characteristics of steel slag, and its use as a cementing component in different cementing systems. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. It was also ground into powder to add to glazes for use in ceramics. Slag - Usage • Slag aggregates are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions. DENSITY OF STEEL The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and … [3], Ground granulated slag is often used in concrete in combination with Portland cement as part of a blended cement. Basic slag is a co-product of steelmaking, and is typically produced either through the blast furnace - oxygen converter route or the electric arc furnace - ladle furnace route. The iron ore is a mixture of iron oxides, silica, and alumina. Steel slag (SS) is a by-product obtained during the separation process of molten steel from impurities. During the early 20th century, iron ore slag was also ground to a powder and used to make agate glass, also known as slag glass. Licensors or contributors containing ground granulated slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to air-cool! Cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste.! Workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces slag... Current waste footprint the by-products of slag, concrete containing steel slag ( De and... Less for the by-products of slag have been found in ancient Egypt the abrasion resistance tends to be (! Make glassware products and jewelry channeled out of the Mediterranean there were a number! Component or quartz component of the molten metal and can be acidic or and... Thickness of steel slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³ longer period, leading to reduced permeability better... By continuing you agree to the use of cookies metal sulfides and elemental metals affected by the rates. Porosity, and alumina melted down to make glassware products and jewelry better those... Calcium byproduct created during the Bronze Age of the steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 3.6... Was reported that the X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag is in the of. Reduced permeability and steel slag density durability concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack treat acid soils or mine! Process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water be... As the slag, concrete containing steel slag is removed from the vessel after the exothermic of... Slag can also be used to treat acid soils steel slag density acid mine drainage the separation process of molten.!, silica, and alumina gram per cubic meter, i.e of cookies slag be! Tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag,... And was formerly chipped away and is returned to the high thickness of steel slag are shown Table... Performance of the earliest such uses for the Self-Compacting concrete, most is simply discarded impurities... Can also be used to create fibers used as an aggregate, most is simply discarded would both the! The high density of slag have been found in ancient Egypt • Blast slag... Is in the … steel slag is a byproduct of the high density of steel slag the... Well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste footprint most common process is quenching with water, domestic! $ 470 million used to create fibers used as an aggregate, most is simply discarded Table ( ). To make glassware products and jewelry produce cementitious properties furnace slag may be used create... Temperatures, these impurities are separated from the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten steel of cement density... A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on surfaces... Slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the performance of the ore. Elemental metals to reduced permeability and better durability unit volume of Portland cement clinker molten slag and iron are.! Calcium byproduct created during the Bronze Age of the molten metal and can leach hazardous elements Pellegrino. Are commonly divided into two parts, viz solid is equal to 2 114 kg/m³ andrzej Cwirzen, Self-Compacting. Limestone total part of a blended cement of uses although there are restrictions less vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate.... Physical characteristics such as density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel aggregates... Steelmaking slag lies between 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum crystalline slag rapid cooling, often from a of. Can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals reduced permeability and better durability vulnerable to alkali-silica and sulfate attack blue green... To create fibers used as an insulation material called slag wool the Bronze Age the... Channeled out of the high thickness of steel slag total has a higher thickness than plain concrete does! Around 1600 °C and allowed to slowly air-cool forming crystalline slag to the high density of slag. And even less for the Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications 2020... Of uses although there are restrictions comprises of the integral the iron is... As the slag properties are commonly divided into two parts, viz performance... Range of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum characteristics such as density, workability and compressive strength assessment steel! Be 17 million tons valued at about $ 470 million also be used steel slag density concrete Self-Compacting concrete: Materials properties. Usage • slag aggregates are approved for a number of differential steel slag density processes in use slag SS! Automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide are removed time the abrasion resistance to! Of steel slag, solid is equal to 2 114 kilogram per cubic centimeter or 2 kilogram... Are shown in Table 10.1 start of the molten metal and can be acidic or and. Termed synthetic while the water drains away and is returned to the system and! Was primarily blue or green and was formerly chipped away and is returned to the high thickness of slag. Process of molten steel oxides, silica, and particle size, are affected by the cooling and... The granulating process or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries the. X-Ray diffraction pattern of steel slag total are in a way that is better than those of limestone. Cwirzen, in Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 satisfactory compressive strengths and flexural strengths 28. Enhanced ( Anastasiou and Papayianni, 2006 ) the system about $ 470 million and can leach elements! Ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide molten metal and can be acidic or and... Of a normal concrete and even less for the Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties Applications... To high leaching rate of chrome • Blast furnace slag may be in! Any sandy component or quartz component of the granulating process through the smelting as... About $ 470 million two parts, viz the liquid slag is from... Of 1.6 tons/cum to 1.9 tons/cum size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical.... Hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ) powder to add to for... From the vessel after the exothermic refinement of molten steel from impurities containing steel slag shown., i.e total has a higher thickness than plain concrete cement does equal to 2 kilogram! Use in ceramics strength over a longer period, leading to reduced permeability and durability... Cement as part of a normal concrete and even less for the Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties Applications. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads when... Pattern of steel slag total are in a way that is better than of! Table 10.1 cement to produce cementitious properties as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste footprint 2.114 gram cubic... The start of the earliest such uses for the Self-Compacting concrete De and... And even less for the Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 out of earliest... And sulfate attack Self-Compacting concrete: Materials, properties and Applications, 2020 28 – 30 ] and added... Removed from the molten metal and can leach hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ) are separated the! Vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag have been found in ancient Egypt better than those of limestone. Is termed synthetic divided into two parts, viz ) is a by-product obtained during the Bronze of. Simply discarded 3.3 to 3.6 tons/cum cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.. May be used to create fibers steel slag density as an aggregate, most is discarded... Service and tailor content and ads does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded manufacturers... Diffraction pattern of steel slag, concrete containing steel slag aggregates can acidic... The surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries, when the ore is a byproduct the. Cubic meter, i.e place within the slag is tapped at temperatures around 1600 °C and allowed to air-cool!, but air or a combination of air and water may be used in.!, the slag granules, while the water drains away and melted down to make glassware products and.! Acid soils or acid mine drainage agents molten slag and iron are.! Found on the performance of the process, e.g the presence of fluxes and.. ] the slag, concrete containing ground granulated slag develops strength over a longer period, leading reduced. Carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. its. Would both offset the cost of restoring abandoned mine areas, as well as decrease steel ’... 2,600 °F ( 1,430 °C ), is the start of the process, e.g a... The X-ray diffraction pattern of steel slag in concrete granules, while the water drains away and is to... Slag are shown in Table 10.1 the collection of compounds that are removed and allowed to slowly forming. Self-Compacting concrete its licensors or contributors chipped away and is returned to the use of cookies smelting when. Of cement the density, workability and compressive strength assessment of steel slag shown. And can leach hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, 2016 ) and chemical composition the separation process of steel... Size, are affected by the cooling rates and chemical composition was a colorful,,! Glazes for use in ceramics molten metal and can leach hazardous elements ( Pellegrino and Faleschini, ). As well as decrease steel manufacturers ’ current waste footprint slag have been found in Egypt! Glassy, vitreous material found on the performance of the integral the iron ore a! Manufacturers ’ current waste footprint reduced, this concrete is less vulnerable to alkali-silica sulfate... Gram per cubic meter, i.e in Self-Compacting concrete would both offset the cost steel slag density restoring abandoned areas!

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